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Harmful Algal Blooms


Harmful Algal Blooms

A Compendium Desk Reference
1. Aufl.

von: Sandra E. Shumway, JoAnn M. Burkholder, Steven L. Morton

229,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-Blackwell
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 21.05.2018
ISBN/EAN: 9781118994689
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 696

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Beschreibungen

Harmful Algal Blooms: A Compendium Desk Reference provides basic information on harmful algal blooms (HAB) and references for individuals in need of technical information when faced with unexpected or unknown harmful algal events. Chapters in this volume will provide readers with information on causes of HAB, successful management and monitoring programs, control, prevention, and mitigation strategies, economic consequences of HAB, associated risks to human health, impacts of HAB on food webs and ecosystems, and detailed information on the most common HAB species.    Harmful Algal Blooms: A Compendium Desk Reference will be an invaluable resource to managers, newcomers to the field, those who do not have easy or affordable access to scientific literature, and individuals who simply do not know where to begin searching for the information needed, especially when faced with novel and unexpected HAB events.  Edited by three of the world's leading harmful algal bloom researchers and with contributions from leading experts, Harmful Algal Blooms: A Compendium Desk Reference will be a key source of information for this increasingly important topic.
List of Contributors xvii  Acknowledgments xxi  Introduction xxiii  1 Causes of Harmful Algal Blooms 1 Patricia M. Glibert and JoAnn M. Burkholder   1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 “Getting There”: The Classic Perspective on Introduced Species and Links to Cultural Eutrophication 2 1.2.1 Introduced Species 2 1.2.2 Anthropogenically Introduced Nutrients 3 1.3 “Being There”: Blooms and Why They Succeed 5 1.3.1 Nutrient-Related HAB 5 1.3.2 Resource Ratios, Nutrient Stoichiometry, and Optimal Nutrient    Ratios 6 1.3.3 Diversity in Use of Forms of Nitrogen 9 1.3.4 Toxicity 10 1.3.5 Mixotrophy: Use of “Packaged” and Dissolved Particulate   Nutrients 12 1.3.6 Other Adaptations 13 1.4 “Staying There”: Links to Physical Structure and Climate 14 1.4.1 Physical Structure: Large-Scale and Small-Scale Natural Hydrological   Features 14 1.4.2 Physical Dynamics: Anthropogenic Hydrological Changes 15 1.4.3 Reinforcing Feedbacks 16 1.4.3.1 Trophic Disruptions 16 1.4.3.2 Biogeochemical Alterations 17 1.4.4 Climate Change 18 1.5 Conclusions 20 Acknowledgments 21  References 21  2 Detection and Surveillance of Harmful Algal Bloom Species and Toxins 39 Gregory J. Doucette, Linda K. Medlin, Pearse McCarron, and Philipp Hess   2.1 Introduction 39 2.2 Organism Detection 41 2.2.1 Visual/Optical 41 2.2.1.1 Light Microscopy (LM)/Utermöhl’s 41 2.2.1.2 Light Microscopy/Flow Cytometry 41 2.2.1.3 In Vivo Fluorometry 42 2.2.1.4 Spectral   Absorbance/Spectroradiometry 43  2.2.2 Molecular 43  2.2.2.1 Whole Cell Format 44  2.2.2.2 Cell-Free Format 47  2.3 Toxin Detection 51  2.3.1 In Vivo Assays 53  2.3.1.1 Rat Bioassay 58  2.3.1.2 Mouse Bioassay 58  2.3.2 In Vitro Assays 59  2.3.2.1 Functional Assays 60  2.3.2.2 Structural Assays 66  2.3.2.3 Biosensors 71  2.3.3 Analytical Techniques 72  2.3.3.1 High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Optical Detection (UV or   FLD) 73  2.3.3.2 Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) and Liquid  Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) 75  2.3.3.3 Other Analytical Methods: Capillary Electrophoresis (CE), Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF), and Laser Ablation    Electrospray Ionization (LAESI) 78  2.3.3.4 Perspectives 79  2.4 Autonomous, In Situ Technologies 80  2.4.1 Environmental Sample Processor (McLane Research Laboratories) 81  2.4.2 Imaging Flow Cytobot (McLane Research Laboratories) 83  2.4.3 Optical Phytoplankton Discriminator (aka BreveBuster; Mote Marine   Laboratory) 84  2.4.4 CytoBuoy (CytoBuoy b.v.) 85  2.4.5 SPATT Passive Samplers 86  2.5 Conclusions and Future Prospects 87 Disclaimer 89 References and Further Reading 89 3 Modeling Marine Harmful Algal Blooms: Current Status and Future Prospects 115Kevin J. Flynn and Dennis J. McGillicuddy, Jr.  3.1 Introduction 115  3.2 Building Models to Describe Ecological Events 117  3.3 Limitations to What Models Can Do, and Why 119  3.3.1 Building Models 119  3.3.2 Model Complexity 119  3.3.3 The Need for Data 120  3.3.4 Validating Models 121  3.4 Modeling T-HAB and ED-HAB Events 121  3.5 How Good Are Current HAB Models? 122  3.6 Future Modeling of T-HAB and ED-HAB: Managing Expectations 128  3.7 Improving Our Capabilities 129  3.7.1 Changes in the Biological–Modeling Interface 129 Acknowledgments 130 References 130 4 Harmful Algal Blooms and Shell?sh 135Leila Basti, Hélène Hégaret, and Sandra E. Shumway  4.1 Introduction 135  4.2 Major Shell?sh Poisonings 136  4.2.1 Paralytic Shell?sh Poisoning (PSP) 136  4.2.2 Diarrheic Shell?sh Poisoning (DSP) 137  4.2.3 Neurotoxic Shell?sh Poisoning (NSP) 138  4.2.4 Amnesic Shell?sh Poisoning (ASP) 139 4.2.5 Azaspiracid Shell?sh Poisoning (AZP) 139 4.3 Other Toxins: Pectenotoxins (PTX) and Yessotoxins (YTX) 140 4.4 Emerging Shell?sh Poisonings 141 4.5 Toxin Uptake, Accumulation, and Depuration 142 4.6 Shell?sh Contamination in North America 143 4.6.1 Bivalves 143 4.6.1.1 Paralytic Shell?sh Contamination 143 4.6.1.2 Diarrheic Shell?sh Contamination 149 4.6.1.3 Neurotoxic Shell?sh Contamination 150 4.6.1.4 Amnesic Shell?sh Contamination 151 4.6.2 Gastropods 154 4.6.3 Crustaceans 162 4.7 Impacts on Shell?sh 163 4.8 Conclusions and Perspectives 164 References and Further Reading 167  5 Vulnerabilities of Marine Mammals to Harmful Algal Blooms 191Margaret H. Broadwater, Frances M. Van Dolah, and Spencer E. Fire   5.1 Introduction 191 5.2 Overview of Algal Toxins 192 5.2.1 Brevetoxins 193 5.2.2 Ciguatoxins 199 5.2.3 Diarrhetic Shell?sh Poisoning Toxins 200 5.2.4 Domoic Acid 201 5.2.5 Paralytic Shell?sh Toxins 206 5.2.6 Other Algal and Cyanobacterial Toxins 209 5.3 Impacts of Algal Toxins Speci?c to Marine   Mammals 210 5.3.1 The Effects of Toxin Exposure Depend on Animal Physiology and Behavior 210 5.3.2 Emerging Issues: Non-acute and Multiple Toxin   Exposure 211 5.3.3 Prospects for Managing Impacts of HAB 211 5.4 Considerations for the Evaluation of HAB Toxins in Marine    Mammals 212 5.4.1 Sampling Marine Mammals for HAB Toxin Analysis 213 5.4.2 Priority Needs for Investigating HAB Toxin Involvement in Marine Mammal Morbidity and Mortality 214 Abbreviations 214  References and Further Reading 215  6 Interactions between Seabirds and Harmful Algal Blooms 223 Corinne M. Gibble and Brian A. Hoover   6.1 Introduction 223 6.2 Historical Interactions between HAB and   Seabirds 224 6.2.1 Paralytic Shell?sh Poisoning (PSP) 224 6.2.2 Neurotoxic Shell?sh Poisoning (NSP) 227 6.2.3 Amnesic Shell?sh Poisoning 228 6.2.4 Akashiwo sanguinea 228 6.2.5 Diarrheic Shell?sh Poisoning (DSP) 229 6.2.6 CyanoHAB 230 6.3 Improved Monitoring and Establishment of Causality 231 6.3.1 Coordinating Monitoring and Pathology to Con?rm Relationships between HAB and Seabird Mortality 231 6.3.2 Seabirds as Biological Indicators 233 6.4 Implications for Conservation 234 References 235  7 Food Web and Ecosystem Impacts of Harmful Algae 243JoAnn M. Burkholder, Sandra E. Shumway, and Patricia M. Glibert  7.1 Introduction 243  7.2 Approaches, Pitfalls, Progress, and Goals 277  7.3 High-Biomass Algal Blooms 279  7.4 Emerging Recognition of the Roles of Allelochemicals 282  7.4.1 Microalgae 283  7.4.2 Thalloid Macroalgae 285  7.4.3 Filamentous Mat-Forming Macroalgae 287  7.5 Toxigenic Algae in Aquatic Food Webs 287  7.5.1 Toxic Microcystis aeruginosa Blooms across North America 289  7.5.2 Toxic Prymnesium parvum Blooms and Fish Communities in Two Texas Rivers 290  7.5.3 Toxic Pseudo-nitzschia Blooms in Coastal Upwelling Areas 292  7.5.4 Toxic Alexandrium Blooms in the Northeast 292  7.5.5 Toxic Karenia brevis Blooms along the Florida Coast 293  7.6 Ecosystem-Disruptive Algal Blooms 294  7.7 Future Directions 295 Appendix A: Scienti?c Names for Organisms Listed by Common Name in This Chapter, Also Indicating Species Affected by Karenia brevis (Kb) 297 References and Further Reading 301 8 Assessing the Economic Consequences of Harmful Algal Blooms: A Summary of Existing Literature, Research Methods, Data, and Information Gaps 337Charles M. Adams, Sherry L. Larkin, Porter Hoagland, and Brian Sancewich  8.1 Introduction 337  8.2 Overview 338  8.3 Research Methodologies 338  8.4 Sources and Types of Data 347  8.5 Spatial and Temporal Scopes 348  8.6 Nature of the Hazard 349  8.7 Current Research Gaps 350  8.8 Conclusion 351 Acknowledgments 351 References and Further Reading 351 9 Public Health and Epidemiology 355Lynn M. Grattan, Joe Schumacker, Andrew Reich, and Sailor Holobaugh  9.1 Introduction 355  9.2 What Is Public Health and Epidemiology? 355  9.3 HAB and Human Illness 356  9.3.1 Paralytic Shell?sh Poisoning (PSP) 357  9.3.1.1 Exposure 357  9.3.1.2 Clinical Symptoms 361  9.3.1.3 Treatment 361  9.3.2 Amnesic Shell?sh Poisoning (ASP) 361  9.3.2.1 Exposure 361  9.3.2.2 Clinical Syndrome 361  9.3.2.3 Treatment 362  9.3.3 Neurotoxic Shell?sh Poisoning (NSP) 362  9.3.3.1 Exposure 362  9.3.3.2 Clinical Illness 363  9.3.3.3 Treatment 363  9.3.4 Brevetoxin Inhalation Syndrome (BIS) 363  9.3.4.1 Exposure 363 9.3.4.2 Clinical Illness 363 9.3.4.3 Treatment 363 9.3.5 Diarrhetic Shell?sh Poisoning (DSP) 363 9.3.5.1 Exposure 363 9.3.5.2 Clinical Syndrome 364 9.3.5.3 Treatment 364 9.3.6 Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) 364 9.3.6.1 Exposure 364 9.3.6.2 Clinical Illness 364 9.3.6.3 Treatment 365 9.3.7 Azaspiracid Shell?sh Poisoning (AZP) 365 9.3.7.1 Exposure 365 9.3.7.2 Clinical Syndrome 366 9.3.7.3 Treatment 366 9.3.8 Toxic Cyanobacteria 366 9.3.8.1 Exposure 366 9.3.8.2 Clinical Syndromes 366 9.3.8.3 Treatment 366 9.4 The HAB Manager’s Role in Preventing HAB-Related Illnesses 367 9.4.1 HAB Management Exemplars 367 9.4.2 The Native American Perspective from Washington State, USA: Domoic Acid and Paralytic Shell?sh Toxins 367 9.4.2.1 Background 367 9.4.2.2 Tribal Capacity and Inclusion 369 9.4.2.3 Lessons Learned 369 9.4.3 The Florida Department of Health Perspective 369 9.4.3.1 Harmful Algal Blooms 370 9.5 HAB-Related Stressors and Human Resilience 370 9.6 Conclusion 371 References and Further Reading 371  10 Marine Biotoxin and Harmful Algae Monitoring and Management 377Gregg W. Langlois and Steve L. Morton   10.1 Introduction 377 10.2 Identifying Sampling Program Needs 383 10.3 Developing a Sampling Program for Shell?sh   Monitoring 384 10.3.1 Shell?sh Sampling Stations 384 10.3.2 Monitoring Shell?sh Toxicity 386 10.4 Developing a Sampling Program for Phytoplankton Monitoring 388 10.4.1 Phytoplankton Sampling Stations 388 10.4.2 Monitoring Phytoplankton 389 10.5 Monitoring Other Fisheries 394 10.6 Novel Approaches and Advanced Tools to Enhance Monitoring Programs 396 10.6.1 Diversifying Program Participation: Volunteer   Monitors 396 10.6.2 Field Testing for Toxins: PSP and ASP 399 10.6.3 Screening Tests for Toxins: DSP and PSP 401 10.6.4 SPATT 401 10.6.5 Oceanographic Data 402 10.7 Management Considerations 408 10.7.1 Commercial Shell?sh 408 10.7.2 Recreational Shell?shing 411 10.8 Phytoplankton Sampling Protocol Examples 413 10.9 HAB Forecasting Links 413 Acknowledgments 413  References and Further Reading 413   11 Harmful Algal Bloom Education and Outreach 419Mare Timmons, Mary Sweeney-Reeves, and Steve L. Morton  11.1 Introduction 419  11.2 K–12 Education 426  11.3 Web-Based and Distance Learning Education 427  11.4 Citizen Science 428  11.4.1 Contributions of Citizen Science 429  11.4.2 Connecting Citizen Science to Ocean Learning 431  11.4.2.1 Safety 431  11.4.2.2 Training Sessions 431  11.5 Conclusion 432   References and Further Reading 432  12 Prevention, Control, and Mitigation of Harmful Algal Bloom Impacts on Fish, Shell?sh, and  Human Consumers 435Kevin G. Sellner and J.E. (Jack) Rensel  12.1 Introduction 435  12.2 HAB Prevention 435  12.2.1 Aquaculture Site Selection or Relocation 435  12.2.2 Nutrient Load Reductions 436  12.2.3 Phytoplankton Mixing, Increasing Turbulence, and Decreasing Residence    Times   (Mostly Freshwater Systems) 440  12.2.4 Reducing HA Introductions 441  12.3 Preventing and Reducing HAB Impacts on Shell?sh and Fish 442  12.3.1 Preventing Human and Animal Exposures 442  12.3.1.1 Shell?sh and Fin?sh Monitoring 442  12.3.1.2 Depuration and Detoxi?cation 444  12.3.1.3 Food Processing 444  12.3.1.4 Cooking 445  12.3.1.5 Aerosols 445  12.3.1.6 Medical Treatments 445  12.4 HAB Controls 445  12.4.1 Protections 445  12.4.2 Biomass Removal 446  12.4.3 Capping 446  12.4.4 Nutrient Trapping in Sediments 446  12.4.5 Reductions of Algal Resting Stages (Cysts) 446  12.5 Mitigation of HAB 447  12.5.1 Detection 447  12.5.2 Chemical Additions 448  12.5.3 Flocculation 451  12.5.4 Barely Straw (Hordeum vulgare) 454  12.5.5 Other Treatments 455  12.5.5.1 UV Exposure 455  12.5.5.2 Cavitation 455  12.5.5.3 Ultrasound 455  12.5.5.4 Electrolysis 456  12.5.5.5 Hydraulics and Mixing 456  12.5.5.6 Biological Controls 456  12.6 Shell?sh 458  12.7 Fish Mariculture 459  12.7.1 HAB Mitigation for Fish Mariculture 459  12.7.2 Best Management Practices for Fish Mariculture Siting, Including HAB and Eutrophication Issues 460 12.7.2.1 Local Land Use 460 12.7.2.2 Plankton Monitoring and Water Quality Assessments 460 12.7.2.3 Physical Hydrographic Considerations 461 12.7.2.4 Vertical Mixing Considerations 461 12.7.3 Mitigation of HAB at Fish Mariculture Facilities 461 12.7.4 HAB Mitigation Methods for Fish Mariculture 462 12.7.4.1    Feeding and Handling Practices 462  12.8 Conclusions 470 Acknowledgments 474  References 474  Further Reading 492  13 Harmful Algae Introductions: Vectors of Transfer, Mitigation, and Management 493Shauna Murray and Gustaaf Hallegraeff   13.1 Summary 493 13.2 The Biogeographic Ranges of Harmful Algal Bloom Species 493 13.3 Vectors of Transfer 494 13.3.1 Natural Factors 494 13.3.2 Ballast Water 494 13.3.3 Translocation of Aquaculture Products 494 13.4 Molecular Evidence for Introductions of New Species to a Region 494 13.4.1 The Stalk-Forming Freshwater Fouling Diatom Didymosphenia geminata 495 13.4.2 Alexandrium paci?cum and A. minutum in European and Japanese Waters 496 13.4.3 Gymnodinium catenatum in Australia and Europe 497 13.5 Prevention and Risk Reduction 498 13.5.1 Code of Practice on Translocation with Aquaculture Products 498 13.5.2 Warning for HAB in Ballast Water-Uptake Zones and When Translocating Aquaculture Products 498 13.5.3 Ballast Water Management 498 13.5.4 Other Precautionary Measures 500 13.6 Emergency Treatment Options 501 References 502  14 Culture and Culture Collections 507 Gary H. Wikfors and Steve L. Morton   14.1 Introduction 507 14.2 Step 1: Sampling the Environment 507 14.3 Step 2: Processing a Field Sample in the Laboratory to Con?rm Presence of the Target Organism 509 14.4 Step 3: From Spark to Flame 511 14.5 Step 4: Long-Term Perpetuation of HAB Cultures 511 14.6 Epilogue 512 Further Reading 513  15 Harmful Macroalgal Blooms in a Changing World: Causes, Impacts, and Management 515 Brian E. Lapointe, JoAnn M. Burkholder, and Kathryn L. Van Alstyne   15.1 Introduction 515 15.2 Freshwater and Other Inland Macroalgae 516 15.3 Estuarine and Coastal Marine Macroalgae 519 15.4 In?uences on Bloom Development 525 15.5 Nutrient Pollution 525 15.5.1 Sources 525 15.5.2 Indicators of Nutrient Pollution and Nutrient Sources 526 15.6 Uptake/Adsorption of Other Contaminants 526 15.7 Impacts on Human Health:  Macroalgae as Substrata for Pathogens 527  15.8 Non-native Invasions 528  15.9 Ecological and Ecosystem-Level Impacts 529  15.9.1 Regime Shifts 530  15.9.2 Freshwater Macroalgal HAB 532  15.9.2.1 Filamentous Cyanobacteria 532  15.9.2.2 Filamentous Green Algae 533  15.9.3 Estuarine and Coastal Marine HAB 534  15.1 Effects of Blooms on the Chemistry of the Oceans and the Atmosphere 535  15.10.1 Changes to Carbonate Chemistry and pH 535  15.10.2 Release of Materials and Chemicals into Seawater 536  15.10.3 Release of Volatile Compounds 537  15.11 Management Strategies 537  15.12 Economic Impacts 539  15.13 Recycling Macroalgae Biomass 541  15.14 Forecast 542 References and Further Reading 542  16 Harmful Algal Species Fact Sheets 561 Alexandrium 563Allan D. Cembella Amphidomataceae 575Urban Tillmann   Aureococcus anophagefferens Hargraves et Sieburth & Aureoumbra  lagunensis   DeYoe et Stockwell – Brown Tides 583Christopher J. Gobler   Ceratium furca (Ehrenberg) Claparede &   Lachmann 585Steve L. Morton   Chattonella marina 587Carmelo R. Tomas   Cochlodinium – Rust Tide 589Christopher J. Gobler   Cyanobacteria 591JoAnn M. Burkholder, Christopher J. Gobler, and Judith M.   O’Neil Dinophysis 597Steve L. Morton   Fibrocapsa japonica 599Carmelo R. Tomas   Gambierdiscus 601Michael L. Parsons, Mindy L. Richlen, and Alison Robertson   Gymnodinium catenatum 605Allan D. Cembella and Christine J. Band-Schmidt   Heterosigma akashiwo 613Carmelo R. Tomas   Karenia brevis (Davis) Hansen et Moestrup – Florida Red Tide 615Larry E. Brand   Ostreopsis 617Michael L. Parsons, Mindy L. Richlen, and Alison Robertson   P?esteria piscicida Steidinger & Burkholder and P?esteria shumwayae  Glasgow & Burkholder 621JoAnn M. Burkholder and Harold G.  Marshall   Prorocentrum 625Patricia M. Glibert and JoAnn M.  Burkholder   Prymnesium parvum (Carter) – “Golden Algae” 629Daniel L. Roelke and Schonna R. Manning   Pseudo-nitzschia – seriata group; delicatissima group 633Raphael Kudela Takayama 637Larry E. Brand   Appendix 1 Websites That Routinely Distribute Bulletins on the Presence of Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB) for Public Health 639  Appendix 2 Stage Agencies Providing Information and Updates on Toxic and Harmful Algal Blooms and Water Quality 641  Appendix 3 List of General Web Resources 645  Index 647 
Sandra E. Shumway, University of Connecticut, Groton, CT, USA. JoAnn M. Burkholder, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA. Steven L. Morton, NOAA National Ocean Service, Charleston, SC, USA.
Harmful Algal Blooms A Compendium Desk Reference Editors Sandra E. Shumway, JoAnn M. Burkholder, and Steve L. Morton Harmful Algal Blooms: A Compendium Desk Reference provides basic information on harmful algal blooms (HAB) and references for individuals in need of technical information when faced with unexpected or unknown harmful algal events. Chapters in this volume will provide readers with information on causes of HAB, successful management and monitoring programs, control, prevention, and mitigation strategies, economic consequences of HAB, associated risks to human health, impacts of HAB on food webs and ecosystems, and detailed information on the most common HAB species. Harmful Algal Blooms: A Compendium Desk Reference will be an invaluable resource to managers, newcomers to the field, those who do not have easy or affordable access to scientific literature, and individuals who simply do not know where to begin searching for the information needed, especially when faced with novel and unexpected HAB events. Edited by three of the world's leading harmful algal researchers and with contributions from leading experts, Harmful Algal Blooms: A Compendium Desk Reference will be a key source of information for this increasingly important topic. Sandra E. Shumway, University of Connecticut, Groton, CT, USA JoAnn M. Burkholder, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA Steve L. Morton, NOAA National Ocean Service, Charleston, SC, USA

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