Online Risk to ChildrenImpact, Protection and Prevention
Wiley Child Protection & Policy Series 1. Aufl.
Online Risk to Children brings together the most up-to-date theory, policy, and best practices for online child protection and abuse prevention. Moves beyond offender assessment and treatment to discuss the impact of online abuse on children themselves, and the risks and vulnerabilities inherent in their constantly connected lives Global in scope, setting contributions from leading researchers and practitioners in the UK in international context via chapters from Australia, the USA and Europe. Key topics covered include cyberbullying, peer-oriented abuse, victim treatment approaches, international law enforcement strategies, policy responses, and the role of schools and industry
Foreword xi Anne Longfield About the Contributors xiii Acknowledgements xvii Introduction 1Jon Brown 1 A Brief History of Child Safety Online: Child Abuse Images on the Internet 5John Carr Unintended, Unforeseen and Unwanted Consequences 5 Sexual Images of Children 6 The World Wide Web Explosion 7 Affordability, Accessibility and Anonymity – The Three As – Provide The Spur 8 The Number of Arrests and Police Operations Start to Climb 9 The Emergence of Hotlines 10 The Birth of the Internet Watch Foundation 12 Not a Very Promising Start 15 The Terrain Shifts and URL Blocking Emerges 16 Technology Comes to the Rescue of a Problem Technology Helped to Create 18 The Role of Search Engines 19 The Unanswered Questions about Technical Solutions 19 2 Children’s and Young People’s Lives Online 23Sonia Livingstone Trends in Children’s Internet use 24 Parental Responses and Responsibilities 25 Digital Skills as Mediators—Why is it Hard to Get This Right? 27 The Emerging Balance of Opportunities and Risks 28 Evidence?]Based Implications for Policy and Practice 30 Conclusion 32 3 Cyberbullying and Peer?]Oriented Online Abuse 37Andy Phippen Perspectives on Online Child Protection From Parents 39 Policy Responses and ‘Prevention’ Mechanisms 41 Growing up in the Online World 43 4 Offender Behaviour 55Helen C. Whittle and Catherine Hamilton-Giachritsis The Impact of the Online Environment 56 Offending Online 57 Comparison with Offline Offenders 65 Gaps in Our Knowledge 67 Conclusion 67 5 Treatment of Online Offenders: Current Best Practice and Next Steps 73Sandy Jung Online Sex Offenders: Characteristics and Comparisons with Contact Offenders 74 Typology of Online Offenders 77 Theories of Online Offending 79 Intervention Best Practices with Online Sex Offenders 81 Conclusion 90 6 The Impact of Online Sexual Abuse on Children and Young People 97Elly Hanson Overview of Online Sexual Abuse 98 The Impact of Child Sexual Abuse 102 Characteristics of CSA that Affect Impact 104 Social Contextual Factors that Affect Impact 104 Social and Psychological Processes Following Abuse 106 Complexities to Online Sexual Abuse 106 Salient Factors Underpinning Impact 111 Promoting Resilience, Reducing Impact, Fostering Recovery 116 Research Directions 117 Conclusion 117 7 Promising Therapeutic Approaches for Children, Young People and their Families Following Online Sexual Abuse 123Elly Hanson Effective and Promising Treatment Approaches for Problems in Childhood Arising from Sexual Abuse 124 Key Targets for Change in Therapy 127 Promising Methods of Fulfilling Key (Overlapping) Therapeutic Aims 130 Engagement and Building a Strong Therapeutic Relationship 131 Developing Positive Body Esteem and Sexuality 133 Reducing the Impact of Abuse Images Circulating and the Threat of This 133 Overcoming Shame and Self?]Blame; Building Pride and Mastery 135 Facilitating Support from Families 136 Conclusion 137 8 Preventing Child Sexual Abuse Online 143Stephen Smallbone and Richard Wortley Organising Prevention Strategies 144 Prevention Strategies 146 Primary Prevention 146 Secondary Prevention 150 Tertiary Prevention 154 Conclusion 158 9 Promoting Child Protection Principles in Complex Abuse Investigation Involving Online Offending 163Zoe Hilton Definitions 164 Key Principles for Operational Activity 165 Incorporating Child Protection Principles into Operational Planning 166 Principles of Working 166 Capacity and Capability Building 170 Operational Examples 171 Annex 1 173 10 Staying Safe Online 177Dido Harding Technology Is Changing the Rules – or Is It? 177 Embracing Opportunities 178 Industry’s Responsibility 180 Industry Action 181 The Future Challenge 186 11 UK Policy Responses and Their International Relevance 189Claire Lilley Definitions and Terminology 190 Legislation 190 Removal of Child Abuse Content 193 Multi?]Agency Approaches 195 The Role of NGOs 197 Policing Response 198 Offenders 202 Victims 205 Recent Developments 206 Conclusion 210 12 The Role of Schools in Children’s Online Safety 217Martin Waller Online Technologies and Education 218 The Blurring of Boundaries 219 E?]Safety and Moral Panics 222 Integrating Online Technologies 223 Implications 227 Conclusion 228 Epilogue 231 Jon Brown Index 235
Jon Brown is Head of Strategy and Development for The NSPCC (National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children). He is a qualified Social Worker with a Masters in Social Policy from the London School of Economics. Before joining the NSPCC, he served as Operational Director of Children's Services for Action for Children. From 2003-2007 he was Chair of the National Organization for the Treatment of Abusers, and he remains on their National Executive Committee. He is also a Trustee of the Loudoun Trust, a Board member of eNACSO (European NGO Alliance for Child Safety Online), and a peer reviewer for the Economic and Social Research Council.
The Internet has become an integral part of everyday life at home, at work, at school and within peer groups, bringing huge benefits for all. Yet while most children use the Internet positively, the rapid pace of development challenges the safeguarding process. Parents are wary of what their children may be exposed to, yet at the same time unsure how to protect them. Risks associated with the Internet range from exposure to inappropriate content and cyberbullying to grooming and even identify theft. With most children no longer perceiving a divide between life online and offline, there is an urgent need to address this issue in a structured and evidence-based way. This edited book gathers contributions from a range of leading thinkers, researchers and practitioners in a definitive resource for anyone interested in online risk, child protection, and treatment of victims and offenders.